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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

                                                                       Instructions for Authors

Click Here to Download the Paper Template 

Manuscript Format
The manuscript may contain Abstract, Keywords, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION (or RESULTS AND DISCUSSION), CONCLUSIONS, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, CONFLICT OF INTEREST and REFERENCES, and any other information that the author(s) may consider necessary.
Abstract (font size 10; max 250 words): Must be self-explanatory, stating the rationale, objective(s), methodology, main results, and conclusions of the study. Abbreviations, if used, must be defined on the first mention in the Abstract as well as in the main text. Abstract of review articles may have a variable format.
Keywords (font size 10): Three to eight keywords, depicting the article.
INTRODUCTION: Provide a clear and concise statement of the problem, citing relevant recent literature, and objectives of the investigation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Provide an adequate account of the procedures or experimental details, including statistical tests (if any), concisely but sufficient enough to replicate the study.
RESULTS: Be clear and concise with the help of appropriate Tables, Figures, and other illustrations. Data should not be repeated in Tables and Figures, but must be supported with statistics.
DISCUSSION: Provide interpretation of the RESULTS in the light of previous relevant studies, citing published references.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: (font size 10): In a brief statement, acknowledge the financial support and other assistance.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: State if there is any conflict of interest.
REFERENCES (font size 10): Cite references in the text by number only in square brackets, e.g. “Brown et al [2] reported ...” or “... as previously described [3, 6–8]”, and list them in the REFERENCES section, in the order of citation in the text, Tables and Figures (not alphabetically). Only published (and accepted for publication) journal articles, books, and book chapters qualify for REFERENCES.
Declaration: Provide a declaration that: (i) the results are original; (ii) the same material is neither published nor under consideration elsewhere; (iii) approval of all authors have been obtained; and (iv) in case the article is accepted for publication, its copyright will be assigned to Pakistan Academy of Sciences. Authors must obtain permission to reproduce, where needed, copyrighted material from other sources and ensure that no copyrights are infringed upon.
Manuscript Formatting
Manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word (2007 Version .doc or .docx format); pdf files not acceptable. Figures can be submitted in Word format, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT. Manuscripts, in Times New Roman, 1.15spaced (but use single-space for Tables, long headings, and long captions of tables & figures). The text must be typed in a double-column across the paper width. The Manuscript sections must be numbered, i.e., 1. INTRODUCTION, 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS, and so on… (a) Title of the article (Capitalize initial letter of each main word; font-size 16; bold), max 160 characters (no abbreviations or acronyms), depicting article’s contents; (b) Author’ first name, middle initial, and last name (font size 12, bold), and professional affiliation (i.e., each author’s Department, Institution, Mailing address and Email; but no position titles) (font size 12);
(c) Indicate the corresponding author with *; (d) Short running title, max 50 characters (font size 10).

Headings and Subheadings (font size 11): All flush left
Level-2: Capitalize Each Main Word (Except prepositions); Bold
Level-3: Capitalize each main word (Except prepositions); Bold, Italic
Level-4: Run-in head; Italics, in the normal paragraph position. Capitalize the initial word only and end in a colon (i.e., :)

List of REFERENCES must be prepared as under:
a. Journal Articles (Name of journals must be stated in full)
1. I. Golding, J. Paulsson, S.M. Zawilski, and E.C. Cox. Real time kinetics of gene activity in individual
bacteria. Cell 123: 1025–1036 (2005).
2. W. Bialek, and S. Setayeshgar. Cooperative sensitivity and noise in biochemical signaling. Physical Review Letters 100: 258–263 (2008).
3. R.K. Robert, and C.R.L.Thompson. Forming patterns in development without morphogen gradients: differentiation and sorting. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 1(6) (2009).
4. D. Fravel. Commercialization and implementation of biocontrol. Annual Reviews of Phytopathology 43:337359 (2005).
b. Books
5. W.R. Luellen. Fine-Tuning Your Writing. Wise Owl Publishing Company, Madison, WI, USA (2001).
6. U. Alon, and D.N. Wegner (Ed.). An Introduction to Systems Biology: Design Principles of Biological Circuits. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA (2006).
c. Book Chapters
7. M.S. Sarnthein, and J.D. Stanford. Basal sauropodomorpha: historical and recent phylogenetic developments. In: The Northern North Atlantic: A Changing Environment. P.R. Schafer, & W. Schluter (Ed.), Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 365–410 (2000).
8. J.E. Smolen, and L.A. Boxer. Functions of Europhiles. In: Hematology, 4th ed. W.J. Williams., E. Butler and M.A. Litchman (Ed.), McGraw Hill, New York, USA, pp. 103–101 (1991).
d. Reports
9. M.D. Sobsey, and F.K. Pfaender. Evaluation of the H2S method for Detection of Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water, Report WHO/SDE/WSH/02.08, Water Sanitation and Health Programme, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland (2002).
e. Online references
These should specify the full URL for reference and give the date on which it was consulted. Please check again to confirm that the work you are citing is still accessible:
10. L. Branston. SENSPOL: Sensors for Monitoring Water Pollution from Contaminated Land, Landfills and Sediment (2000). (accessed 22 July 2005)
Tables and Figures
Insert all tables as editable text, not as images. Number tables consecutively following their appearance in the text, Figures should appear in numerical order, be described in the body of the text, and be positioned close to where they are first cited. Each figure should have a caption that describes the illustration, and that can be understood independently of the main text (Caption Table 1. and Fig 1. font size 10; Bold; Captions should be in sentence case; left-aligned). All Figures should have sufficiently high resolution (minimum 1000 pixels width/height, or a resolution of 300 dpi or higher) to enhance the readability. Figures may be printed in two sizes: column width of 8.0 cm or page width of 16.5 cm; number them as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, … in the order of citation in the text. Parts in a figure can be identified by A, B, C, D, ... . and cited as Figure 2A, Figure 2B, Figure 2C. Captions to Figures must be concise but self-explanatory. Laser printed line drawings are acceptable. Do not use lettering smaller than 9 points or unnecessarily large. Photographs must be of high quality. A scale bar should be provided on all photomicrographs.

Tables: with concise but self-explanatory headings must be numbered according to the order of citation (like Table 1., Table 2.). Do not abbreviate the word "Table" to "Tab.". Round off data to the nearest three significant digits. Provide essential explanatory footnotes, with superscript letters or symbols keyed to the data. Do not use vertical or horizontal lines, except for separating column heads from the data and at end of the Table.

Figures: Figures may be printed in two sizes: column width of 8.0 cm or page width of 16.5 cm; number them as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, … in the order of citation in the text. Captions to Figures must be concise but self-explanatory. Laser printed line drawings are acceptable. Do not use lettering smaller than 9 points or unnecessarily large. Photographs must be of high quality. A scale bar should be provided on all photomicrographs.

Note: The template of the manuscript is available at;

Reviewers: Authors may suggest four relevant reviewers, two National and two International (with their institutional E-mail addresses).


Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences: B. Life and Environmental Sciences publishes Articles/Manuscripts free of charge. The journal does not charge an article submission fee. Authors do not pay Article Processing Charge (APC) and Article Publication Fee (APF) to cover the costs of peer review administration and management, professional production of articles in PDF and other formats, and dissemination of published papers in various venues, in addition to other publishing functions.


The copyright will be assigned to the Pakistan Academy of Sciences on acceptance of an article.

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article before sending it to the journal for review.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address (Correct and valid)
• Full address of Institute/organization
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for the use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)

In case of any difficulty while submitting your manuscript, please get in touch with:

Pakistan Academy of Sciences
3-Constitution Avenue, Sector G-5/2
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: +92-51-920 7140


Research Articles

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